Endangered animal species found in Sri Lanka such as the wild elephant, sloth bear, leopard, and the wild water buffalo adorn the rich wilderness of Wilpattu. The Sri Lankan elephant roam in herds while some magnificent giants walk with pride as lone elephants. Another special feature of Wilpattu is its Leopard population, renowned world over for spotting the majestic leopard. However to date the actual leopard population of this park is unknown.
The wild sambhur, spotted deer, mongoose, and mouse deer are also permanent residents of Wilpattu. Most commonly sighted reptiles slithering in the Villus (water bodies) are the water lizard, Crocodile, common Cobra, Rat snakes and the Indian Python. Among the birds one can see circling the skies of the Wilpattu is the painted stork, open bill, little cormorant, Sri Lankan Jungle fowl, many species of owls, eagles, gulls, wetland birds such as spoonbill, purple heron, egrets, white ibis, whistling teal, pintail.
Wilpattu is receives around 1000mm of Annual Rainfall mainly from the northeast monsoon between December- February and the Inter-monsoonal rains in March.